Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing
Aluminum Chloride Overview:
  • Solid crystals or powder; white, gray, yellow or green
  • Strong acidic irritating odor like hydrochloric acid
  • Sinks in water
  • Boiling Point: Sublimes
Chemical Formula: AlCl3
CAS #: 7446-70-0
Molecular Weight: 133.34 gram/mole
Risks:
  • Cause respiratory, skin, eye, mucous membrane and ingestion burns
  • Reacts violently with water and forms corrosive hydrochloric acid, toxic hydrogen chloride gas, and aluminum hydroxide
  • Attacks metals in presence of moisture
  • Aluminum Chloride is a reactive and a dangerous explosion hazard
Incompatibles: Organic materials, bases, and nitrobenzene
Water Solubility: Decomposes, reacts violently; 45.8g/100mL in water @ 20 C
NFPA Ratings: Health =3; Fire=0; Reactivity=2
IDLH: 50 ppm (as Hydrogen Chloride)
ACGIH TWA: 2 mg/m3 (as Al)
Signs & Symptoms of AlCl3 Exposure:
  • Caustic and irritating to eyes, skin, and respiratory system
  • Inhaling Aluminum Chloride can irritate lungs; higher exposures may cause pulmonary edema and fibrosis
Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Wet Scrubbing
Ammonium Chloride Overview:
  • White, odorless, non-combustible solid
  • Sinks and mixes slowly with water
  • Produces poisonous gas in fire
  • Boiling Point: Sublimes
Chemical Formula: CHl4N
CAS #: 12125-02-9
Molecular Weight: 53.49 gram/mole
Risks:
  • Corrodes copper and copper compounds
  • Corrodes most metals at high temperatures
  • Poisonous gases may be produced in fire
Incompatibles: Alkalis and their carbonates, lead and silver salts, strong oxidizers, ammonium nitrate, potassium chlorate, bromine trifluoride, organic materials, bases, and nitrobenzene
Water Solubility: Varies with temperature; 29.7g/100mL in water @ 0oC; 37.2g/100mL in water @ 20oC
NFPA Ratings: Health =1; Fire=2; Reactivity=0
IDLH: 50 ppm (as Hydrogen Chloride)
ACGIH TWA/STEL: 10 mg/m3 (as fume) / 20 mg/m3 (as fume)
Signs & Symptoms of ClH4N Exposure:
  • Irritate eyes, skin, respiratory system
  • Cough, dyspnea, pulmonary sensitization
Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing
Boron Trichloride Overview:
  • Colorless toxic, corrosive, non-flammable gas that fumes in air
  • Pungent, irritating odor
  • May cause severe respiratory tract, eye and skin burns
  • Very toxic by inhalation
  • Decomposes in moist air and releases hydrochloric acid and decomposition products
Chemical Formula: BCl3
CAS #: 10294-34-5
Molecular Weight: 117.17 gram/mole
Risks:
  • Cause respiratory, skin, eye, mucous membrane and ingestion burns
  • Reacts violently with water liberating heat and forms corrosive hydrochloric acid fume and boric acid
  • Highly corrosive to most metals in the presence of moisture
  • Gas is heavier than air so it may collect in low area
Incompatibles: Water/moisture, strong oxidizers, strong bases, alcohols, aniline, phosphine, nitrogen dioxide, grease, organic compounds
Water Solubility: Decomposes, reacts
NFPA Ratings: Health =3; Fire=0; Reactivity=1
IDLH: 50 ppm (as Hydrogen Chloride)
OSHA STEL / ACGIH STEL: 5 ppm (Ceiling)
Signs & Symptoms of BCl3 Exposure:
  • Fatal at high concentrations; may cause coughing, choking sensation, chills, chest pain, pulmonary edema, and death
  • Chemical burns of mouth, throat, esophagus, and stomach
Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing
Boron Trifluoride Overview:
  • Boron Trifluoride is a toxic; poisonous, corrosive gas
  • Boron Trifluoride is colorless gas with a pungent, irritating odor
  • Boron Trifluoride fumes in moist air to form a dense white cloud
  • Boron Trifluoride is stable under normal condition
Chemical Formula: BF3
CAS #: 7637-07-2
Molecular Weight: 67.81 gram/mole
Risks:
  • May be fatal if inhaled
  • Breathing of BF3 gas is highly suffocating and irritating to the respiratory system
  • BF3 can cause severe respiratory tract, eye and skin burns.
  • BF3 may cause target organ damage.
  • Reaction with water produces fluoboric acid and boric acid
Incompatibles: Highly reactive with metals, alkalis, polymerizable materials and moisture.
Water Solubility: Appreciable in cold water; reacts with hot water
NFPA Ratings: Health =4; Fire=0; Reactivity=1
IDLH: 25ppm
OSHA PEL:
  • CEIL: 3 mg/m3
  • CEIL: 1 ppm
Signs & Symptoms of Boron Trifluoride Exposure:
  • Fatal at high concentrations; may cause coughing, choking sensation, chills, chest pain, pulmonary edema, and death
  • Aggravate asthma and inflammatory or fibrotic pulmonary disease
  • Severely irritating to eyes; mild excess redness and swelling of the conjunctiva; high concentrations may cause corneal burns
  • Dryness of nasal membranes, nosebleed, dental fluorosis, bronchiolitis and chemical pneumonia

Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing (caustic liquor to prevent off-gassing is beneficial)
Hyd
Hbr
rogen Bromide Overview:
  • Stable, non-flammable gas
  • Extremely corrosive
  • Colorless with an irritating sharp odor, fuming in moist air
Chemical Formula: HBr
CAS #: 10035-10-6
Molecular Weight: 80.92 gram/mole
Risks:
  • Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite
  • Severely corrosive to respiratory system
  • Hydrogen bromide forms corrosive hydrobromic acid on contact with water
  • Incompatibles: Hydroxides, amines, alkalis, copper, brass, zinc
Incompatibilities: A strong mineral acid hydrogen bromide reacts with strong oxidizers, ammonia, strong caustics, fluorine, or common metals such as, copper, brass, and zinc, mixed with moisture may cause explosive reactions to occur. A reaction of hydrogen bromide with fluorine may be accompanied by flame. The evolution of dangerous, toxic and corrosive fumes may occur when this substance mixes with water or steam. It can also react instantaneously with ozone to cause an explosion
Water Solubility: 193 g/100 mL (20 °C)
NFPA Ratings:
Health = 3; Fire= 0; Reactivity= 0
IDLH: 30 ppm
OSHA PEL / ACGIH TLV: 3 mg/m3
Signs & Symptoms of Hydrogen Bromide Exposure:
  • Irritant of eyes, nose, throat, larynx
  • Inhalation of HBr vapor can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of nose, throat and upper respiratory tract; high concentration may cause erosion of teeth
  • Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and may be fatal
Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing (caustic liquor to prevent off-gassing is beneficial)
Hydr
HCl
ogen Chloride Overview:
  • Stable, non-flammable gas
  • Extremely corrosive
  • Colorless to slightly yellow liquefied compressed gas with an irritating odor; colorless fuming gas with a pungent irritating odor
Chemical Formula: HCl
CAS #: 7647-01-0
Molecular Weight: 36.46 gram/mole
Risks:
  • Contact with rapidly expanding gas may cause burns or frostbite
  • Severely corrosive to respiratory system
  • Hydrogen chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with water
Water Solubility: 70g/100g water @ 20 C
Incompatibilities: A strong mineral acid, hydrochloric acid is incompatible with many substances and highly reactive with strong bases, metals, metal oxides, hydroxides, amines, carbonates and other alkaline materials. Incompatible with materials such as cyanides, sulfides, sulfites, and formaldehyde
NFPA Ratings: Health = 3; Fire= 0; Reactivity= 0
IDLH: 50 ppm
OSHA PEL / ACGIH TLV: 7 mg/m3; 5 ppm ceiling / 2ppm
Signs & Symptoms of Hydrogen Chloride Exposure:
  • Irritant of eyes, nose, throat, larynx
  • Inhalation of HCl vapor can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of nose, throat and upper respiratory tract; high concentration may cause erosion of teeth
  • Ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and may be fatal
Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing (caustic liquor to prevent off-gassing is recommended)
Hydrogen Fluoride Overview:
  • HF
    Hydrogen Fluoride is a toxic, corrosive, non-flammable gas
  • Hydrogen Fluoride is a colorless; it generates white fumes when react with moist air
  • Hydrofluoric acid can be detected at low concentrations
  • Danger is elevated because victims may not realize they have been exposed until much later
Chemical Formula: HF
CAS #: 7664-39-3
Molecular Weight: 20.1 gram/mole
Risks:
  • When reacts with water hydrogen fluoride forms and produces very corrosive hydrofluoric acid
  • Hydrofluoric acid has a repulsive, irritating, acidic odor
  • When contact with skin hydrofluoric acid can cause severe and painful burns which may not be visible immediately
  • Inhalation of hydrofluoric fume can cause inflammation and congestion of lungs, and circulatory collapse
  • Hydrogen fluoride can cause chemical pneumonitis, pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema
  • Inhalation can be fatal because appearance of symptoms may be delayed
  • HF attacks soft tissues and bones. HF injuries can be extremely painful
  • HF is a local anesthetic and this may impair the ability to recognize that one has been exposed
  • Onset of HF injury may be many hours or even days after initial exposure

Incompatibles: Most metals, alkali materials, water or steam; corrosive to metals; will attack glass and concrete
Water Solubility: Miscible
NFPA Ratings: Health = 4; Fire= 0; Reactivity= 1
IDLH: 30 ppm
OSHA TWA: 3 ppm
Signs & Symptoms of Hydrogen Fluoride Exposure:
  • Irritant of skin, eyes, nose, throat; pulmonary edema; skin, eye burns; rhinitis; bronchitis; bone changes
  • Hydrogen fluoride solution can cause severe and painful burns which may not be visible immediately
  • Burns to mouth, esophagus and stomach
  • Fluorosis, changes in bone, chronic irritation and congestion of nose, throat and bronchial tubes, mucous membranes

Abatement Method: Dry Scrubbing or Water Scrubbing
Silicon Tetrafluoride (Tetrafluorosilane) Overview:
  • Colorless toxic, corrosive, non-flammable gas that fumes in air
  • Pungent, irritating odor
  • May cause severe respiratory tract, eye and skin burns
  • Very toxic by inhalation
  • Decomposes in moist air and releases hydrofluoric acid and decomposition products
Chemical Formula: SiF4
CAS #: 7783-61-1
Molecular Weight: 104.0791 gram/mole
Risks:
  • All of the risks of hydrogen fluoride = Treat as HF
  • Corrosive on ingestion. Inhalation of the vapor of this substance may cause lung edema
  • Inhalation may cause acute lung injury from direct tissue injury
  • Reacts violently with water liberating heat and forms corrosive hydrochloric acid fume and boric acid
  • Highly corrosive to most metals in the presence of moisture
  • Gas is heavier than air so it may collect in low area
Incompatibles: Water/moisture, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, calcium oxide
Water Solubility: Decomposes
NFPA Ratings: Health =4; Fire=0; Reactivity=2
IDLH: 30 ppm
OSHA PEL / ACGIH TWA: 0.8 ppm
Signs & Symptoms of SiF4 Exposure:
  • All of the risks of hydrogen fluoride
  • Cardiac dysrhythmias may occur
  • The symptoms of lung edema often do not become manifest until a few hours have passed and they are aggravated by physical effort
  • Skeletal muscle weakness and spasm
  • Respiratory muscle weakness and respiratory arrest
  • Ventricular dysrhythmias and fibrillation are thought to be the main cause of death
  • Patients may have severe toxicity without significant oral or gastrointestinal symptoms
  • Respirations are first stimulated then depressed. Death is usually from respiratory muscle paralysis
  • Following inhalation, coughing and choking may be observed